Broad Sense Pesticide Research

Research into broad sense sustainability deals with the impacts of forestry activities in a more holistic manner, in light of wider economic, social and environment issues and standards.

The implementation of stringent forestry certification standards is a good example of this. These standards ensure certified companies are meeting, and exceeding, environmental, social and economic standards set both nationally and internationally.

Current broad sense research projects TIPWG is involved in.

Environmental fate of pesticides (herbicides fungicides insecticides) within a forestry catchment

Person/s responsibleFunding/Supporting bodiesProblemAction/sOutcomes (progress)Written outputs
Noxolo Ndlovu
(PhD Forestry)
Keith Little
Nelson Mandela University
SCION
SETA
TIPWG
Chemical Companies
Problem:
There is limited environmental impact data for commonly used pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides) and/or chemicals (fertilizers, hydrogels) within South African planted forests

Objective/Need
Obtain data from forestry catchments related to the off-target, off-site fate of commonly used pesticides and other establishment chemicals, and benchmark these against acceptable world-standards
2018
1. Draft initial proposal which will include required (additional) funding
2. Internship in NZ and involvement with fertilizer catchment study
3. Full research proposal
2019
4. Trial implementation, sampling and processing of samples
2020
5. Complete thesis
No progress as of yetNo progress as of yet

The development of an economic, environment and social pesticide risk model for plantation forests in South Africa

Person/s responsibleFunding/Supporting bodiesProblemAction/sOutcomes (progress)Written outputs
Jonathan Roberts
(PhD Forestry)
Keith Little
Nelson Mandela University
TIPWG
Chemical Companies
Problem: There is a lack of a central and accurate data-base related to pesticide-use and the associated target and off-target impacts (biotic and abiotic) within the forestry sector in South Africa

Objective/Need
Determine the actual types and quantities of pesticides applied within plantations at various stages of stand development; and obtain associated/support information related to target and off-target impacts when pesticides are applied
Set up data base obtain industry chemical data related to:
- past and current chemical use
- EHS and toxicology “criteria and indicators”
- past and current trials that have used chemicals as treatments
Data-base set up, and in process of obtaining appropriate dataSpreadsheet and associated summarised information due November 2018
Jonathan Roberts
(PhD Forestry)
Keith Little
Nelson Mandela University
TIPWG
Chemical Companies
Problem:
Most pest-related research only highlights the most effective treatments, which in most instances involves pesticides

Objective/Need
Revisit completed pest-control research to obtain information related to practices that may not have been the best, but that still showed promise in terms of management (cultural and integrated practices included)
Collation in progress of past research involving pesticides to highlight any practices that have resulted in the:
- the role and importance of pesticides
- alternative practices that result in reduced chemical use (manual, biological and/or cultural methods), and
- integrated practices that combine the above
Trials related to vegetation management collated, and in process of listing treatmentsReport due November 2018
Jonathan Roberts
(PhD Forestry)
Keith Little
Nelson Mandela University
TIPWG
Chemical Companies
Problem:
There is a lack of data related to the development of action thresholds and cost-benefit analysis across multiple-data sets

Objective/Need
Carry out cost-benefit analysis + determine action thresholds to determine treatments within trials/across sites to determine the feasibility of alternative (second-best treatments)
Obtain rotation-end data for trials which dealt with pest management so as to determine cost-benefits and from this the determination of action thresholdsTrials related to vegetation management collated, and in process of linking tree growth and costing to treatmentsReport due June 2019
Jonathan Roberts
(PhD Forestry)
Keith Little
Nelson Mandela University
TIPWG
Chemical Companies
Problem:
No comprehensive pest risk models exist within South Africa that are based on actual data

Objective/Need
Develop a risk model regarding the use of pesticides that take into consideration economic, environmental and social benefits
Risk assessment
- source models/tools in existence and used around the world that deal with risk assessments in terms of environmental, social and economic criteria
- refine (or develop hybrid model) for SA conditions and test using outputs obtained from points 2/3/4 above
- tool developed for use by SA forest industry
No progress as of yetReport due October 2019

Understanding the cost benefits of vegetation management and the role that herbicides play in term of achieving optimum rotation-end yield

Person/s responsibleFunding/Supporting bodiesProblemAction/sOutcomes (progress)Written outputs
Keith Little
Anssi Ahtikoski
Nelson Mandela University
TIPWG
LUKE
Problem:
There is a general lack of appropriate rotation-end cost-benefit data for various vegetation control practices

Objective/Need
1. Test financial (cost-benefit) models on one rotation-end data set
2. Using the above financial model the relative importance of chemical/manual/cultural vegetation management techniques can be tested using multiple data sets so as to ensure long-term productivity
1. The financial performance for vegetation control were tested using one rotation-end eucalypt data-set, whereby various financial sensitivity models were applied and compared

2. Methods applied in point 1 above will be used to analyse 7 x completed eucalypt trials that will highlight cost:benefits of different vegetation management techniques (chemical vs. manual vs. cultural)
1. The financial performance (expressed as bare land value [BLV] with 6% discounting) of the Weedfree treatment outperformed the other treatments and was 37% higher than the Weedy check. The BLVs of the Moderate and Low weeding intensity treatments were similar to each other, indicating that these treatments were both feasible in terms of financial performance. However, the 2 m Row weeding had c. 10% higher BLV than the Moderate and Low weeding intensity treatments, and could be considered as a viable alternative to the Weedfree treatment, but with reduced herbicide-use.

2. No progress as of yet (due end-2018)
Little KM, Ahtikoski A, Morris A. 2018. Rotation-end financial performance for vegetation control in Eucalyptus smithii, South Africa. Southern Forests – Published online

Pesticide-use within South African forestry nurseries and the testing of non-hazardous products for pest and disease control

Person/s responsibleFunding/Supporting bodiesProblemAction/sOutcomes (progress)Written outputs
Keith Little
Jacqui Meyer
Jolanda Roux
Ilke Opperman
Nelson Mandela University
TIPWG
SGASA
Sector Innovation Fund
Problem:
As biotic and abiotic risks cannot be fully managed through an improvement of tree resilience alone, other methods have been incorporated into an integrated pest management plan and include biological, cultural and chemical control. This project focusses on the chemical control methods used within forestry nurseries in South Africa to manage pests and pathogens.

The main aim of this project is to quantify pesticide-use within South African forestry nurseries, and to identify and test non-hazardous products for those that are considered highly hazardous. To achieve this, the study will consist of three components (objectives), the first of which will involve a survey of current pesticide-use within nurseries, the second will involve the linking of chemical properties to pesticide, together with the identification of less hazardous products, and the last objective will be the testing potential products in the form of nursery trials.
1. Quantification of products used (type and amount) for the management of insect pests and pathogens in South African forest nurseries.

2. The classification of toxicity levels for current and potential products for the management of key forest nursery-related pests and pathogens.

3.The testing of non-hazardous products for the management of key forestry nursery-related pests and pathogens.
Project has only just commenced

For more broad sense pesticide research projects being conducted in South Africa visit www.icfr.ukzn.ac.za